Protocol Analyzers

SierraNet M408

The SierraNet M408 is the most cost effective, advanced and fully integrated 10/40Gbps Ethernet and 16G Fibre Channel data capture and protocol verification systems available for developers and protocol test engineers. The SierraNet M408 supports Ethernet protocol analysis and error injection capabilities in a single platform and provides engineers with 100% recording of all Fibre Channel and Ethernet related traffic at full line rates on all ports while maintaining the link integrity through non-retimed pass-through probe technology.

Explore SierraNet M408 Explore SierraNet M408
SierraNet M328  The SierraNet M328 system provides users with traffic capture, data analysis, protocol verification and introduces error injection capabilities for 25/50/100Gbp/s Ethernet and Gen 6 (32/128G) Fibre Channel LAN, SAN, NAS and other high-speed fabric applications. Available with eight SFP28 FlexPorts™ for maximum configuration and utility, the SierraNet M328 offers world-class protocol analysis capabilities with an easy to use, customizable hardware & software interface, large capture buffers, and the most advanced triggering and filtering capabilities in the industry.
SierraNet M328Q  The SierraNet M328Q system provides users with traffic capture, data analysis, protocol verification and introduces error injection capabilities for 25/50/100Gbp/s Ethernet and Gen 6 (32G) Fibre Channel LAN, SAN, NAS and other high-speed fabric applications. Available with a pair of QSFP28 FlexPorts™ for native QSFP cable interconnection to the link or fabric under test, the SierraNet M328Q offers world-class protocol analysis capabilities with an easy to use, customizable hardware & software interface, large capture buffers, and the most advanced triggering and filtering capabilities in the industry.
SierraNet T328  SierraNet T328 supports analysis of up to 4 bi-directional links of 25Gb/s Ethernet or 32Gb/s Fibre Channel, and 2 bidirectional 50Gb/s Ethernet, and 1 bi-directional link of 100Gb/s Ethernet or 128Gb/s Fibre Channel.
SierraNet M408  SierraNet M408 supports analysis and error injection of up to four bi-directional links of 10Gbps Ethernet or 16G Fibre Channel and 1 bi-directional link of 40Gbps Ethernet.
SierraNet M168  SierraNet M168 supports analysis and error injection of up to four bi-directional links of 10Gbps Ethernet or 16G Fibre Channel

Ethernet, the most ubiquitous networking technology in the computer industry, has been used for a myriad of communications solutions over the past 20+ years and is the backbone of the Internet, corporate datacenter and enterprise applications, modern telephony infrastructures, and all the associated devices.

The “original” serial communication interface, newer high-speed Ethernet deployments provides a bi-directional, physical or logical, lower latency connection between the user/client and their device(s).  Serial transmissions enable much longer connection distances as compared to parallel transmission methods, because far fewer signal lines are required, thereby reducing noise created by multiple signal lines all switching at the same time (cross talk).

Ethernet has long been the data-communications choice for the corporate network as a reliable interconnectivity solution.  The evolution of speeds as well as multi-vendor networks requires adherence to the IEEE standards for Ethernet and a industry commitment to interoperability testing for standards conformance.

Advancements in storage protocols support and physical transport speeds, and improvements in reduced latency is elevating Ethernet to rival Fibre Channel for support of block oriented storage traffic in SAN (Storage Area Network) applications.

Ethernet relies on direct attached copper (DAC) cabling, however to enable longer distance communications, it is designed to work with either optical fiber physical medium or copper cables in many connector and cable type configurations.  Copper cables are relatively inexpensive, but they are useable only for shorter distances, in the range of 5-meters at 10GbE and ~3-meters at 25GbE. In general, the higher the transmission speed, the shorter the distance that can be reliably supported by copper cable technology.  A variety of copper solutions are available, the most commonly used being DAC cabling in both SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable) and QSFP (Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable) configurations. SFP and QSFP optical cabling solutions are also available, supporting reliable transmission distances greater than 10 meters, up to about 10 kilometers.




Fibre Channel is a layered protocol, and is modeled loosely on the OSI model for networks. In the OSI model, and in the case of Fibre Channel, each layer provides specific services and makes the results available to the next layer.  Figure 1 below compares the defined OSI layer to the defined Fibre Channel layers.

OSI Model Fibre Channel
7 - Application  
6 - Presentation  
5 - Session FC-4 Protocol map
4 - Transport FC-3 Services
3 - Network FC-2 Framing
2 – Data Link FC-1 Data Link
1 - Physical FC-0 Physical
Figure 1, OSI Model and Fibre Channel Network Layers

The layers in the table represent different functions and services that exist within the Fibre channel protocol definition. As with the other communication standards, protocol level analysis is often focused at the link layer (FC-2) and above.

Fibre Channel, like any network architecture, transports blocks of user or application related information called payloads. Before sending a payload over the physical link, additional Fibre Channel specific control bytes are added to both the start and the end of the payload data. The combination of the control bytes and the payload data is called a frame, which is the basic unit of information in Fibre Channel.  A minimum of 60 bytes of overhead data surround each frame for the purposes of maintaining minimum separation between frames, mark the start and end of a frame, and to check for transmission errors. Within a frame the actual user data being transported can vary from 0 to a maximum of 2112 bytes. Fibre Channel transfers data through switched or direct point-to-point connections which work by creating temporary connections between the source and destination devices.  These connections last only until the transfer is completed and can be temporarily preempted by higher priority transfer requests.

Connections are made on Fibre Channel systems through “interconnect components” such as switches, hubs, and bridges. The ability of Fibre Channel to use different interconnect devices makes it flexible and scalable depending on user needs. For small Fibre Channel networks, inexpensive hubs and loop-switches may be used for connecting devices in a topology called Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC- AL). As Fibre Channel networks get larger and network bandwidth demands increase, full matrix switching may be implemented. A fully switched Fibre Channel network is called a Fabric topology.

Fabric topology permits multiple alternative paths to be established between any two ports in the Fabric. Loop (FC-AL) topology, on the other hand, is like a string of Christmas tree lights where the path goes serially from one device to the next and finally back to the originating device.  In this type of topology if one device or the path between any two devices fails, the entire string of devices lose their connection.  Loop and Fabric topologies can be combined to provide both low cost connectivity and high performance.


Fibre Channel protocol is designed to support very low latency and high data transfer rates. The currently approved standard supporting up to 8.5Gb/s, is generally referred to as 8GFC. Server virtualization and storage virtualization are broad trends that are driving the need for higher bandwidth.  The need for high bandwidth in the network infrastructure is just now beginning to drive the replacement of previous product generations of 1, 2, and 4GFC by 8GFC.

Fibre Channel is a good choice for any environment with many servers needing access to centralized storage, computer data centers for example. Because of this, Fiber Channel enjoys over 80% market share as the network interface used in external storage systems such as SAN environments.


Key Features
  • 1U form-factor with rack mount kits
  • Eight SFP+ FlexPorts, supporting 10Gbps Ethernet and 16G Fibre Channel over optical or copper connections
  • Two QSFP ports, supporting 40Gbps Ethernet over optical or copper connections
  • Advanced, multi-state triggering & filtering
  • Pass-through probe technology (not re-timed)
  • Standard 16GB, 32GB or 64GB recording buffers
  • Dynamic memory allocation
  • Extensive Ethernet protocols supported, including FCoE, NVMe/oF, RoCE and iSCSI
  • Multiple trace view formats
  • Seamless WireShark integration
  • USB 3.0 & Gigabit Ethernet Host Interfaces for fast upload and easy management
Flexibility to Meet Any Debug Challenge

The SierraNet M408 hardware platform and Net Protocol Suite™ user interface provides the highest level of performance and flexibility available in the market.

The SierraNet M408 employs Teledyne LeCroy’s new FlexPort™ technology providing ultimate flexibility in analysis of traditional or converged Ethernet and Fibre Channel products in a single platform and the flexibility to add protocol specific features, functionality, and speed support at the time of purchase or later by simply adding more license keys.  Each FlexPort pair can probe both Fibre Channel and Ethernet links of speeds up to 10Gbps for Ethernet and/or 16G FC on copper or optical cabling and eliminates the need for separate “single function” blades, pods, or adapters found in some competitive products providing a highly compact, extremely flexible, multi-function protocol analyzer.

In addition to FlexPort technology, the SierraNet M408’s new sophisticated analysis software, the Net Protocol Suite, provides unmatched flexibility with customized data displays that easily identify and navigate to specific events of interest quickly.  Decoding in the Net Protocol Suite’s multiple trace views provide superior visibility for troubleshooting low level to application layer issues, decode per the supported specifications and their associated encoding schemes, and the zero-time search and filter capabilities easily find Ethernet and Fibre Channel events in a contextual and intuitive way.  In a multi-protocol environment, Teledyne LeCroy’s CrossSync™ can synchronize and correlate traces with our other leading protocol analysis tools, such as the PCI Express Gen3 Summit analyzers, to understand how traffic, stimulus, and/or errors propagate across bridges or adapters.

Versatile, Cost-effective Platform

The SierraNet M408 platform is Compact, Portable, and Light Weight. The SierraNet is currently the Smallest (1U) and lightest (9.5lbs) Fibre Channel and Ethernet protocol analyzer platform in the market, saving valuable real estate and rack space in customer labs and is the best portable solution for engineers on the move. 
SierraNet provides users the lowest cost of ownership per engineer, and the lack of maintenance or support fees for subsequent years of operation means strained budgets are not tapped just to keep up with evolving specifications and advancements.
The SierraNet M408 is also the only analyzer in the market with integrated 40Gbps QSFP ports, eliminating the complexity of external "octopus” cables used in some competitive products. The integrated QSFP ports also ensure reliable analysis and error injection by eliminating the risk and associated cost of the additional 8 potential failure points the “octopus” cables create in a test environment.


The SierraNet M408 offers the fastest and most convenient access to the data that engineers need with either a USB3.0 or GE interface.  As USB is Plug and Play, this is particularly useful when capturing large amounts of data is necessary, but a quick connection to the analyzer is required, such as at a customer site.  In addition to the performance and ease-of-use of the USB3.0 interface, a Gigabit Ethernet Host Interface is also standard on the SierraNet platforms, and the IP Address set-up menus on the front panel eliminate the time and complexity required to configure an analyzer via a null-modem cable and hyper-terminal interface used on competitive products.

The SierraNet M408 also offers the best Time-Stamp Resolution in the market. The SierraNet family has been enhanced with a 1ns time-stamp resolution/accuracy, setting a new industry standard for trace analysis and for timing measurements required for testing high performance SAN products, particularly where latency is a key metric of success.

Additionally, the SierraNet family’s Advanced State Machines are easy to use and help Engineers Trigger, Filter, and Inject errors with surgical precision with up to 4 sequencers and up to 24 states per sequencer to concisely target areas of interest and save precious time. When the user can not accurately define the conditions associated with a problem and needs to capture a broad swath of traffic to identify a cause of an issue, the SierraNet can also dynamically assign the largest and most flexible recording memory in the industry to one port or spread the memory use across all eight ports based on the traffic profile.

Host Requirements: Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Windows Server 2008 (R2) and Windows Server 2012; The latest Service Pack available for the associated Windows OS in use is required; 
(The 64-bit Windows version of the Operating System is recommended as this will allow more RAM use over 32-bit installations)
Hard drive with at least 200 MB of free space for the installation of the software and additional space for storing recorded data; display with resolution of at least 1024 x 768 with at least 16-bit color depth; USB2.0 port and/or 100/1000Mbps Ethernet network interface. 
  For optimal performance, please refer to our recommended configurations. 
Connectivity: A Gigabit (1000Mbps) Ethernet link is recommended for used with the SierraNet analyzers. At minimum the host machine should have either a 100/1000Mbps Ethernet connection to the network or a USB 2.0 port.  If multiple analyzers are daisy chained and connected to the same host machine, one Ethernet connection or one USB port is required for each analyzer.
Recording Memory Size:  Up to 64 GB 
Data Rates Supported:  1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Gb/s Fibre Channel
10/40Gb/s Ethernet
No. of Ports Supported:  8 SFP+ FlexPorts and 2 QSFP+ Flexports per system
Cascade Capability  Up to 64 ports (8 SierraNet systems) 
Host Interface: USB3.0 and 10/100/1000baseT Ethernet
Front Panel Connectors: 8 SFP+ FlexPorts, 2 QSFP+ Flexports
  External Trigger IN/OUT
  Front Panel Indicators
  LEDs (Speed, Link, Status) for each TX & RX pair, Status LCD Panel, Power LED
Front Panel Controls: Power ON/OFF, Menu Navigation and Selection Wheel
Rear Panel Connectors: AC Power, Expansion Port (Expansion cards are optional)
Included Accessories: AC Power Cord, USB2.0 and USB 3.0 cables, Ethernet patch cable
Dimensions (H x W x D):  Chassis: 44 x 432 x 358 mm (1.75” x 17” x 14.1”)
  With Bumpers: 52 x 455 x 367 mm (2” x 17.9” x 14.5”)
Weight: 4.3 Kg (9.5 lbs.)
Power Requirements: 100-240 VAC, 50-60 Hz, 100W
Environmental: Operating: 0 to 55o C (32 to 131o F)
  Non-operating: -20 to 80 o C (-4 to 176 o F)
  Humidity: 10 to 90% RH (non-condensing)
1U Zero Carrying Case
Rack Mount Rail Kit for SierraNet Platforms

The Teledyne LeCroy InFusion™ Error Injector and Traffic Modifier is an error injector and traffic modification tool that allows you to verify real‐world fault handling for Fibre Channel systems. InFusion can sit unobtrusively in the data path on a live system to programmatically alter or corrupt traffic. InFusion is the ideal tool for stress‐testing systems using actual workloads.

SierraNet InFusion supports Ethernet links of 10/40G and Fibre Channel links up to 16 Gbps. InFusion monitors traffic from both directions in real‐time and relies on predefined rules to replace any bit, ordered‐set, or parameter with one you specify. InFusion can change traffic when it detects a specific sequence or reaches a designated time interval, yet it requires no complicated scripts, programming, or simulation tools. InFusion can monitor traffic in both directions and act on Events occurring in either direction of the communications link. InFusion can modify traffic in only one direction within a given test Scenario, but that direction can be either from the Originator or from the Responder. InFusion is specifically designed to verify recovery characteristics within a subsystem. An easy, user friendly menu interface with icons and hyperlinks allows you to create specific test Scenarios in just minutes.

Once an InFusion session starts, the system automatically handles protocol handshaking between devices. InFusion transmits a faithful copy of the original data stream down to the CRC value which, if needed, it recalculates. InFusion allows test engineers to systematically verify error recovery in ways not possible with other test platforms.

Key Features:
  • Error Injection: Injects CRC, disparity, 8b/10b encoding, framing, and coding errors.
  • Break Link Recovery: Programmatically breaks the connection to test link recovery.
  • Value Replacement: Monitors the link for specific values, patterns, or ordered‐sets (as low as bit level) and replace with user‐defined values. You can replace values on every occurrence, after a specified number of occurrences, or after a specified time interval.
  • Packet Drop: Removes individual ordered‐sets or frames from the stream to verify retry behavior.
  • Ordered‐set Manipulation: Replaces handshaking and flow control ordered‐sets to help validate robustness of a design.
  • Traffic Monitoring: Operates as a traffic monitor, collecting statistical data on user‐specified parameters. In this mode, data passes unchanged in both directions.
  • Menu‐Driven Interface: Allows easy set‐up of test Scenarios.

With respect to traffic modification, in the Link Layer you can modify ordered‐sets, CRC, scrambled data, and connection Events. You cannot modify clock skew management and signal integrity. InFusion consists of a hardware device that connects to the line under test and a Windows‐based software application used to create and download test scripts to the device. You also can use the software application to configure and control the device across an Ethernet or USB link. InFusion test scripts are called Scenarios. Scenarios determine how the hardware device monitors and modifies line traffic. In order to create and download Scenarios the Teledyne LeCroy Net Protocol Suite application must be used. For the InFusion connections, the device is connected between the PHYs of the originator and responder.