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The White Papers section of the Teledyne LeCroy Technical Library lets you search for, browse, and print the latest technical documentation. A search aid allows you to filter documents by category or keyword.

White Papers on this site are available in PDF format for easy download.

White Papers

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32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber

We transmit 32 WDM channels over 12 spatial and polarization modes of 177 km few-mode fiber at a record spectral efficiency of 32 bit/s/Hz. The transmitted signals are strongly coupled and recovered using 12 x 12 multiple-input multiple-output digital signal processing.

12 x 12 MIMO Transmission over 130-km Few-Mode Fiber

We demonstrate 12 x 12 multiple-input multiple-output mode multiplexed transmission over 130-km of few-mode fiber of a combined 6-space-, 2-polarization-, and 8-wavelength-division multiplex, using low-loss photonic lantern and 3D-waveguide mode multiplexers.

Configurable Protocol Decoding of Manchester And NRZ-Encoded Signals

The industry's first NRZ and Manchester configurable protocol decoders accept a broad range of physical characteristics for NRZ- or Manchester-encoded signals.

Understanding SDAIII Jitter Calculation Methods

The SDAIII-CompleteLinQ toolset calculates total, random and deterministic jitter (Tj, Rj and Dj), periodic jitter (Pj) and data-dependent jitter (DDj), which includes inter-symbol interference (ISI) and duty cycle distortion (DCD). The toolset includes three algorithmic methods based on dual-Dirac models for calculating and decomposing Tj, Rj and Dj. The document describes the three methods and explains the similarities and differences.

Article: Delivering SuperSpeed with 25% Lower Power

USB 3.0: cranking up to superspeed

Low-Loss Mode Coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode Fiber

We present a novel low-loss 3-spot mode coupler to selectively address 6 spatial and polarization modes of a few-mode fiber. The coupler is used in a 66 MIMO-transmission experiment over a 154-km hybrid span consisting of 129-km depressed-cladding and 25-km graded-index few-mode fiber.

Mode-Multiplexed 620-GBd QPSK Transmission over 1200-km DGD-Compensated Few-Mode Fiber

Low differential group delay (DGD) between the modes of a graded-index few-mode fiber is obtained by combining segments with DGD of opposite sign. Transmission of mode-multiplexed 620-GBd QPSK over a record distance of 1200 km is demonstrated.

Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber

We experimentally demonstrate multiple-input-multiple-output transmission of a combined 3-space-, and 2-polarization-, and 5-wavelength-division multiplex in a 3-core microstructured fiber over 4200 km. This is the record transmission distance for spatial-division multiplexing in a fiber.

Fast and Optimal Algorithms for Enforcing Reciprocity, Passivity and Causality in S-parameters

Scattering or S-parameters obtained from direct measurements or through EM wave simulations may violate physical laws due to measurement or numerical errors. If used in simulations, such S-parameters lead to incorrect results and wrong conclusions. This paper focuses on three such properties of S-parameters – causality, passivity and reciprocity. Tests are provided to detect if any of the three conditions are violated. Separate algorithms are provided to make S-parameters causal, passive and reciprocal. The proposed algorithms are proven to be the best in the solution space, and are easy to implement.

DesignCon 2012 - Robust Method for Addressing 12 Gbps Interoperability for High-Loss and Crosstalk-Aggressed Channels

This paper addresses a new methodology for 12 Gbps interoperability that combines a concerted family of pathological channels, internal eye monitoring, and external EQ simulation tools, providing insight into an EQ optimization strategy that addresses the specific channel’s mix of crosstalk noise, jitter, and channel loss. This also provides a backplane designer the ability to configure a high-loss, crosstalk aggressed system.
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